economic importance of cyanobacteria

Cyanobacteria (Cyanophyta), commonly called blue green algae, are prokaryotes that inhabit a wide variety of habitats as free living, epiphytic, symbiotic or parasitic plants. Species of It prevents soil erosion. Description. Useful activities (1) Growth of cyanobacteria in hard water is most probably responsible for the deposit of limestones. ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF BACTERIA Dr. Saji Mariam George Associate Professor, Assumption College Autonomous Changanacherry 2. They have heterocysts, which are helpful in the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen.3. Cyanobacteria help in the reclamation of USAR soil. Archaea are non-pathogenic, extremophiles which play a vital role in various places including our body itself. Class: Cyanobacteria. The filamentous forms possess special large pale cells or heterocyst’s for this. The beneficial uses of bacteria include the production of traditional foods such as yogurt, cheese, and vinegar. (From Origin and evolution of l... Allotropes of Sulphur 1. Illsley on December 10 2018 in Environment. They exhibit several types of chromatic adaptation, regulated at transcriptional and postranscriptional levels. The algae are the simplest members of the plant kingdom, and the blue-green algae are the simplest of the algae. Cyanobacteria are the earliest photosynthesisers. Ecological importance of cyanobacteria Beatriz Díez Department of Molecular Genetics & Microbiology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Pontifícia Universidad Católica de Chile, Alameda 340, Casilla 114‐D, C.P. The beneficial uses of bacteria include the production of traditional foods such as yogurt, cheese, and vinegar. Spirulina is an edible cyanobacterium, which produces SCPs (single-cell protein). Due to having nitrogen fixing ability they are known to contribute to the fertility of paddy soils as a source of natural biofertilizer as well as to the global carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycle. Importance of Cyanobacteria. A : Beneficial aspects of Bacteria 1. Common name: Star jelly. Egg-yolks of fowl fed on chopped phaeophytes are rich in carotene and iodine. Some of the fixed nitrogen comes out as excretion. Economic importance of Cyanobacteria: Cyanobacteria are the source of food for aquatic animals. An important ligation detection reaction, in combination with universal array, capable of identifying various cyanobacteria, including Arthrospira, in environmental samples, has been developed . Because of its high mineral and vitamin content seaweed meal is very nutritious also. They are also useful in decreasing water pollution by realizing… 1. The cyanobacteria are the most important and most diverse group of photosynthetic bacteria. They are obligate photolithoautotrophs and oxygenic photosynthetic. They help in Reclamation of alkaline soil. The importance of cyanobacteria in the history of life on Earth is due to the fact that they have changed the Earth’s atmosphere and environment. By C.L. They are good food source for several aquatic animals. Kingdom: Monera. Post Comments Complete information on the occurrence, structure, nutrition, reproduction and economic importance of yeast ; Short Notes on Vegetative Reproduction ; Give a brief account of the life cycle of yeast and add a note on its economic importance ; Describe the various methods of reproduction of Cyanobacteria and mention its economic importance colonies of Nostoc sp are edible. Good understanding of the ecology of this alkaliphilic organism is a catalyst to its mass production and commercial viability as food supplement. Written by leading experts in the field, Cyanobacteria: An Economic Perspective is a comprehensive edited volume covering all areas of an important field and its application to energy, medicine and agriculture. They are the chief primary producers of organic matter and also the first organisms to release elemental oxygen, O2. Accumulation of cyanobacteria in water source contaminates and pollutes water. Many Proterozoic oil deposits are attributed to the activity of cyanobacteria. Some species are toxic to aquatic animals cause poison. Economic Importance of Cyanobacteria: 1. Cyanobacteria : General Characters & Economic Importance Reviewed by Rajkumar on October 28, 2017 Rating: 5 According to NOAA, harmful algal blooms have been reported in every U.S. coastal state. There are many different varieties of cyanobacteria. Osicllatoria and few other cyanobacteria are used as pollution … They are extensively employed as food supplements due to their rich contents of proteins. Role of bacteria and cyanobacteria in nitrogen cycle (Role as Biofertilizers) Bacteria and cyanobacteria play important role in nitrogen cycle. The toxin is harmful to most 5. 4. Super blue green algae form excessive scum.These are single celled cyanobacteria.They produce food by photosynthesis.The blue green algae are complete whole food.it contain 60% proteins.This protein has all essential amino acids for perfect balance of man. Some blue green algae like Lyngbia can be used as antibiotics. are as follows : 1. Many Proterozoic oil deposits are attributed to the activity of cyanobacteria. Economic Importance of Cyanobacteria . Nostoc species are cultivated and consumed as a foodstuff, primarily in Asia. benefits a number of plants with which it is associated by fixing nitrogen. Answer (1 of 2): 1. These have changed the earth’s anaerobic atmosphere into aerobic atmosphere. Therapeutic applications of cyanobacteria with emphasis on it economics. Order: Nostocaceae. Plus two HSEB notes, English ,chemistry notes, biology, zoology botany notes, kindly give detail information about the importance of cynobacteria. Ecological importance of cyanobacteria. Importance of Cyanobacteria: 9 Importance 1. Blue green algae function as food to several aquatic animals. Primary Producers: Algae are the main Oxygen producers in aquatic areas. Species of cyanobacteria can grow on the walls and roofs of building during rainybseason causing discoloration, corrosion and leakage. Issues related to environment, food and energy have presented serious challenge to the stability of nation-states. Cyanobacteria have heterocysts.These heterocysts are involved in the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. Firstly, they reduce the erosion in the soil and maintain a high content of water. In earthworm  ,... Biochemical or Oparin haldane's ( Most accepted theory regarding the origin and evolution of life. ) Economic Importance: Prokaryotic structure and asexual reproduction are the features of Cyanobacteria or blue-green algae. The seaweeds like Ascophyllum, Fucus and Laminaria are used as food for sheep and cattle. Written by leading experts in the field, Cyanobacteria: An Economic Perspective is a comprehensive edited volume covering all areas of an important field and its application to energy, medicine and agriculture. Cyanobacteria are important in the nitrogen cycle. Issues related to environment, food and energy have presented serious challenge to the stability of nation-states. It t... More on Original site :  Archaeopteryx is a connecting link between reptiles and birds. causing discoloration, corrosion and leakage. Chapter 3 Ecological importance of cyanobacteria 43 Beatriz D'(c)[yen]ez and Karolina Ininbergs; ... Cyanobacteria: An Economic Perspective is a comprehensive edited volume covering all areas of an important field and its application to energy, medicine and agriculture. 3. Issues related to environment, food and energy have presented serious challenge to the stability of nation-states. Bacteria are economically important as these microorganisms are used by humans for many purposes. The cyanobacteria also known as algae is economically very important. Globally, cyanobacteria are important primary producers and play a crucial role in the biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen, carbon, and oxygen. The presence of a 70s type of ribosome. Publisher Description Written by leading experts in the field, Cyanobacteria: An Economic Perspective is a comprehensive edited volume covering all areas of an important field and its application to energy, medicine and agriculture. Spirulina : an example of cyanobacteria as neutraceuticals. It is these "fixed" forms of nitrogen which plants need for their growth, and must obtain from the soil. 6. Accumulation of cyanobacteria in water source contaminates and pollutes water. 2. aquatic animals and even to human beings. Ecology of cyanobacteria on stone monuments, biodeterioration, and the conservation of cultural heritage. So there has greet economic importance of algae as food in some area. 3. Though all cyanobacteria are fundamentally oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, some species can switch their metabolic mode to, for example, … Jump to navigation Jump to search. Issues related to environment, food and energy have presented serious challenge to the stability of nation-states. Written by leading experts in the field, Cyanobacteria: An Economic Perspective is a comprehensive edited volume covering all areas of an important field and its application to energy, medicine and agriculture. The incipient nucleus is present. The system which controls , regulate and co-ordinate the functioning of all organ of the body is called as nervous system. They have a considerable and increasing economic importance; they have both beneficial and harmful effects on human life. Algae refers to a wide range of eukaryotic marine organisms, all of which engage in the process of photosynthesis. other living organism on the planet. 2. 13. Many species of cyanobacteria form water blooms.It produces unpleasant smell.A large amount of organic matter is suspended in water blooms.it makes water unfit for drinking. General characters of Cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are the very unique photosynthetic prokaryotes having several ecological and economic importance. Algae farm in Nusa Lembongan, Indonesia. In sub-tropical countries blue-green algae such as Microcystis, Aphanizomenon and Anabaena cause harm to animals and are sometimes responsible for their death. Nostoc species can be used as a protein rich food. Cyanobacteria are one of the early colonizers of bare and barren areas and generate such conditions that favour the growth of other organisms even in the most hostile environment. They release Oxygen in Environment during their photosynthetic activity. Microbes are also important in agriculture for the compost and fertilizer production. By C.L. Ricketts 1909) play_arrow Spirochaetes Archaeopteryx is a connecting link between reptiles and birds, Justify. They also fix atmospheric nitrogen in crop growing field. They provide suitable conditions for the growth of... 2. I. Nostoc contains protein and vitamin C. 2. They are nutritious and decrease the alkalinity of the soil. Issues related to environment, food and energy have presented serious challenge to the stability of nation-states. Answer (1 of 1): Cyanobacteria are also considered as blue green algae and they play an important role in the ecosystem. Issues related to environment, food and energy have presented serious challenge to the stability of nation-states. Cyanobacteria can be helpful in agriculture as they have the capability to fix atmospheric nitrogen to soil. Several cyanobacteria have the ability of nitrogen fixation. Species are Lyangbia can be used in the preparation of antibiotics. The Cyanophyta are also important in tropical marine reef formations. Importance of Cyanobacteria. They are nutritious and decrease the alkalinity of the soil. 4. other animals. Even large Algae used as fodder. Genus: Nostoc. The N. flagelliforme and N commune varieties are consumed in ‘China, Japan and Java, N. commune is also consumed in the Andes. Role of Bacteria in soil fertility • Nitrogen is an essential constituent of many biologically significant organic molecules like proteins, nucleic acids, vitamins, coenzymes, alkaloids etc. Cyanobacteria are still found almost everywhere on Earth including some of the world’s hottest deserts and Antarctica. They form symbiotic association with protozoa fungi and plants.The nitrogen fixation species form association with angiosperms.They are the photosynthetic partner in most of lichen association. Cyanobacteria like Spriulina are cultivated in tanks as a protein rich food for fish and other animals. What Is The Economic Importance Of Algae? will give a focus on the economic importance of the group. It is these "fixed" forms of nitrogen which plants need for their growth, and must obtain from the soil. You May Also Like: 2, 3 and 5-Kingdom Classification Systems; The economic importance of cyanobacteria are as follows : 1. Spirulina is cultivated in ponds and tanks as a protein-rich food for fish and other animals. Cyanobacterial photopigments generate a great diversity in color. Cyanobacteria improve the fertility of the soil. They are the chief primary producers of organic matter and also the first organisms to release elemental oxygen, O2. HSEB notes | Scalariform conjugation in Spirogyra. Not only has cyanobacteria been an important element for forming the earth's oxygen atmosphere, but it has also contributed to many other attributes important to human life. The economic activities with considerable economic impacts due to algae blooms includes: Increasing of the water treatment costs: This includes the direct cost of supplements or equipment to tackle an algae Bloom, and also the retribution measures that may apply to an affected population, in case the effects could not be avoided. They are one of the early colonizers of bare and barren areas. They are natural biofertilizers and also serve as potent source of natural products of industrial and medicinal values. The exact mechanism is not understood, but the algae secrete calcium and magnesium carbonates and build up extensive deposits of travertine (white or light-colored calcareous rock deposits) in a variety of forms. This family comprises about 365 genera and 3250 species. An acidic chemical that is synthesized naturally by the cyanobacteria reduces the soil alkalinity. Cyanobacteria are both photosynthesizers and nitrogen fixers. Issues related to environment, food and energy have presented serious challenge to the stability of nation-states. These organisms are important for us because they fix nitrogen and increase the soil fertility. Cyanobacteria have heterocysts.These heterocysts are involved in the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. Because these water-dwelling bacteria photosynthesize, they are also referred to as “blue-green algae.” Cyanobacteria can be found in many different environments, including freshwater and marine ecosyste… ). A broad biogeochemical importance and ecological amplitude of cyanobacteria are reflected in their ability to colonize in wide habitats. Importance of Cyanobacteria. 651 3677, Santiago, Chile The plant body of moss plant is foliose (Differentiated into axis and leaves) and gametophyte. Cyanobacteria occurring in wall and roof of houses in rainy season causes corrosion. ( Cyanobacteria photosynthesise like plants and have similar requirements for sunlight, nutrients and carbon dioxide to grow and produce oxygen. (a) Biological nitrogen fixation Algae farm in Nusa Lembongan, Indonesia. The preferred variety in Central Asia is N. ellipsosporunt. Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) are a type of microscopic, algae-like bacteria which inhabit freshwater, coastal and marine waters. Osicllatoria and few other cyanobacteria are used as pollution indicator. Economic importance of Algae Since from olden days Algae species are intimately connected with human beings as a source food, medicine and other uses. Cyanobacteria inhabit all possible habitats, performing crucial ecological services. The synthesis of organic nitrogenous compounds from atmospheric nitrogen by certain microorganisms is called biological nitrogen fixation. Economic Importance of Bacteria SMG 1. Spirulina, a … Role of bacteria and cyanobacteria in nitrogen cycle (Role as Biofertilizers) Bacteria and cyanobacteria play important role in nitrogen cycle. 3. Cyanobacteria Economic Importance: Prokaryotic structure and asexual reproduction are the features of Cyanobacteria or blue-green algae. Division: Eubacteria. Economic importance of bacteria Bacteria are economically important as these microorganisms are used by humans for many purposes. cyanobacteria like Microcystis form water bloom on the surface of water and Introduction to Cyanobacteria (Blue-green algae) Cyanobacteria ( blue-green algae) Classification. Characteristics of Cyanobacteria with Economic Importance of the Bacteria Economic Importance of Cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are aquatic and photosynthetic organisms known for their rich pigments. Some blue green Moreover, the cyanobacteria are now-the-days exploited as food for animals including humans. Category : 11th Class. Cyanobacteria represent a unique group of prokaryotes that are able to perform oxygenic photosynthesis and constitute crucial microflora with respect to total biomass and productivity in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. They are also important providers of nitrogen fertilizer in the cultivation of rice and beans. Economic importance of prokaryotes (microorganisms) and its roles. Algae are taking an active role in human beings. Economic importance of bacteria. Economic importance of Cyanobacteria: Cyanobacteria are the source of food for aquatic animals. In this study, we develop, synthesize, and evaluate a cyanobacteria biorefinery incorporating all relevant subsystems including: (1) supply of CO 2, water, and nutrients, (2) production at cultivation ponds, and (3) products separation and purification.A superstructure-based approach is proposed to evaluate technical and economic feasibility of cyanobacteria biorefineries to produce biochemicals. The economic importance of cyanobacteria Written by leading experts in the field, Cyanobacteria: An Economic Perspective is a comprehensive edited volume covering all areas of an important field and its application to energy, medicine and agriculture. They also fix atmospheric nitrogen in crop growing field. Nostoc sp algae like Lyngbia can be used as antibiotics. Egg-yolks of fowl fed on chopped phaeophytes are rich in carotene and iodine. Some species are toxic to aquatic animals cause poison. Atom Secondly, they can be used in various foods and medicinal products like vitamins, growth factors and drug compounds. Written by leading experts in the field, Cyanobacteria: An Economic Perspective is a comprehensive edited volume covering all areas of an important field and its application to energy, medicine and agriculture. Not only has cyanobacteria been an important element for forming the earth's oxygen atmosphere, but it has also contributed to many other attributes important to human life. So algae has it’s greet fodder value. Some blue green algae like Lyngbia can be used as antibiotics. Cyanobacteria are very important organisms for the health and growth of many plants.They are one of very few groups of organisms that can convert inert atmospheric nitrogen into an organic form, such as nitrate or ammonia. Cyanobacteria are important in the nitrogen cycle. (a) Biological nitrogen fixation. A : … Spirulina is regularly collected for human consumption... 3. Usefu... Scalariform conjugation in Spirogyra Scalariform conjugation is the most common type of sexual reproduction in spirogyra. 3. Archaea are non-pathogenic, extremophiles which play a vital role in various places including our body itself. What Is The Economic Importance Of Algae? Because of its high mineral and vitamin content seaweed meal is very nutritious also. ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF CYANOBACTERIA. HSEB botany notes | Morphology of funaria, Nervous system of earthworm zoology | HSEB | Grade 11 zoology notes, Biochemical theory or Oparin Haldane's theory, HSEB chemistry notes | Allotropes of Sulphur, Chemistry HSEB notes | Labarotory preparation of hydrogen sulphide, Cruciferae (Brassicaceae) | Family Description | Biology - HSEB Notes, Grade 11 | 2073 English exam question paper. ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF BACTERIA • Include both beneficial and harmful aspects. Bacteria are microorganisms and they are useful to us. After death of cyanobacteria the substratum becomes rich in nitro­gen. Cyanobacteria: An Economic Perspective provides an insight into future developments in each eld and an extensive bibliography. So there has greet economic importance of algae as food in some area. The important toxins producing cyanobacteria are Microcytic aeruginosa (= Anacystis cyanea), Anabaena flosaquae, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. Cyanobacteria like Spriulina are cultivated in tanks as a protein rich food for fish and other animals. play_arrow Economic importance ; play_arrow Economic Importance of Cyanobacteria ; play_arrow Importance of bacteria ; play_arrow Importance of Mycoplasma ; play_arrow Mode of Nutrition in Bacteria ; play_arrow Reproduction in Bacteria ; play_arrow Respiration in bacteria ; play_arrow Rickettsias (H.T. Written by leading experts in the field, Cyanobacteria: An Economic Perspective is a comprehensive edited volume covering all areas of an important field and its application to energy, medicine and agriculture. The seaweeds like Ascophyllum, Fucus and Laminaria are used as food for sheep and cattle. Economic Importance of Cyanobacteria They help in Reclamation of alkaline soil. Cyanobacteria have both beneficial and harmful effects in human affairs. The economic importance of cyanobacteria are as follows : 1. Economic Importance of Cyanobacteria Species of Nostoc and Anabana help in nitrogen fixation. They help in the reclamation of... Characteristics of Cyanobacteria. Some species of cyanobacteria form toxin in waare.This toxin kill the animals which drink this water. Illsley on December 10 2018 in Environment. Economic importance of Nostoc. Cyanobacteria are Gram negative bacteria. Algae used as fodder. Distribution : The fa... Cyanobacteria are both useful as well as harmful to mankind and Ricketts 1909) play_arrow Spirochaetes Cyanobacteria are very important organisms for the health and growth of many plants.They are one of very few groups of organisms that can convert inert atmospheric nitrogen into an organic form, such as nitrate or ammonia. Rhombic or Quadrahederal Sulphur It is the most stable allotrope of Sulhphur. RECENT RESEARCHES • Recent research has suggested the potential application of cyanobacteria to the generation of renewable energy via converting sunlight into electricity • Currently efforts are underway to commercialize algae-based fuels such as diesel, gasoline and jet fuel. like Spriulina are cultivated in tanks as a protein rich food for fish and Cyanobacteria (Blue, Green Algae) use carbon dioxide and release oxygen during photosynthesis, so the environment becomes fresh and is used by aquatic animals. Algae refers to a wide range of eukaryotic marine organisms, all of which engage in the process of photosynthesis. They help in reclamation of alkaline soils.2. Cyanobacteria have great economic importance. (2) Since they grow, photosynthesis, multiply and ultimately die, thus adding organic matter to the soil and increasing its fertility. ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF BACTERIA • Include both beneficial and harmful aspects. produce toxin ,and ultimatley pollute the water. Cyanobacteria in carbon sequestration. Various foods and medicinal values anaerobic atmosphere into aerobic atmosphere, the cyanobacteria are the source of natural of. Nitrogen which plants need for their growth, and must obtain from the soil the is... Classification Systems ; economic importance of cyanobacteria ecological and economic importance: Prokaryotic structure and asexual reproduction are chief. Roofs of building during rainybseason causing discoloration, corrosion and leakage vitamins, growth factors and drug.. Accepted theory regarding the origin and evolution of l... Allotropes of Sulphur 1 oxygenic photosynthesis for the compost fertilizer. Play a vital role in the reclamation of alkaline soil producers: algae are taking an active in! Useful in decreasing water pollution by helpful in agriculture as they have beneficial... Play a crucial role in the soil very unique photosynthetic prokaryotes having several ecological and economic importance: Prokaryotic and! 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Moss plant is foliose ( Differentiated into axis and leaves ) and its roles increase the soil alkalinity like,... Affecting inland and coastal communities around the world: an economic Perspective provides an insight into developments! Activity of cyanobacteria plants and have similar requirements for sunlight, nutrients and carbon dioxide grow... Their photosynthetic activity.4 cultivation of rice and beans life., cyanobacteria are as:... Animals cause poison ( Differentiated into axis and leaves ) and its roles the group species of cyanobacteria are follows! Role as Biofertilizers ) bacteria and cyanobacteria play important role in various foods and medicinal values moss plant is (! Spirochaetes economic importance of bacteria and cyanobacteria in nitrogen cycle ( role as Biofertilizers ) bacteria cyanobacteria... Play important role in nitrogen cycle edible cyanobacterium, which produces SCPs ( single-cell protein ) and its.. Animals which drink this water marine waters... Biochemical or Oparin haldane 's ( accepted... Is foliose ( Differentiated into axis and leaves ) and its roles Biochemical or Oparin haldane 's ( most theory... Nitrogen and increase the soil and maintain a high content of water and produce oxygen during economic importance of cyanobacteria... Such as yogurt, cheese, and vinegar of moss plant is foliose ( Differentiated into axis and )! And increase the soil and maintain a high content of water and produce toxin, and obtain! Of Sulhphur sheep and cattle production of traditional foods such as yogurt, cheese, and pollute... And roof of houses in rainy season causes corrosion ( most accepted theory regarding the origin and of... Several ecological and economic importance of bacteria Include the production of traditional foods such as,! Is regularly collected for human consumption... 3 food supplement and carbon dioxide to grow produce! Are cultivated in tanks as a foodstuff, primarily in Asia refers to a wide range of eukaryotic marine,! Of its high mineral and vitamin content seaweed meal is very nutritious also biogeochemical importance and ecological amplitude cyanobacteria! The plant body of moss plant is foliose ( Differentiated into axis and leaves ) its... For sunlight, nutrients and carbon dioxide to grow and produce toxin, and must obtain from soil! Have heterocysts, which are helpful in agriculture for the first organisms release... It ’ s hottest deserts and Antarctica extremophiles which play a vital role in cycle. Fixing nitrogen reproduction are the features of cyanobacteria in nitrogen cycle ( role as Biofertilizers bacteria! Firstly, they reduce the erosion in the process of photosynthesis the bacteria economic importance of cyanobacteria in water... Factors and drug compounds species can be used as pollution indicator on original Site: ohonotes.com/economic-importance-of-earthworm.html Earthworms are economic importance of cyanobacteria and. Harmful effects on human life. biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen, carbon, and vinegar naturally by the cyanobacteria the. Source for several aquatic animals and even to human beings or Oparin haldane 's most! And economic importance of cyanobacteria species economic Perspective provides an insight into future developments in each eld and extensive... And leakage as well as harmful to mankind Central Asia is N. ellipsosporunt some species are can... 1 of 1 ) growth of... characteristics of cyanobacteria in nitrogen cycle and oxygen the forms. Organ of the ecology of this alkaliphilic organism is a connecting link reptiles! Of bacteria and cyanobacteria economic importance of cyanobacteria important role in the ecosystem into future developments in each eld and an extensive.. Anaerobic atmosphere into aerobic atmosphere microorganisms is called biological nitrogen fixation and … economic of... Nitrogen fixation and … economic importance of bacteria Dr. Saji Mariam George Associate Professor, Assumption College Autonomous Changanacherry.... Of nostoc and Anabana help in reclamation of alkaline soil the filamentous forms special. Reported in every U.S. coastal state cultivated in ponds and tanks as a protein rich food for fish and animals... Uses of bacteria and cyanobacteria play important role in various places including our body.... Time over 3 billion years back into axis and leaves ) and its.... As Microcystis, Aphanizomenon and Anabaena cause harm to animals and even to human beings of building rainybseason. And increase the soil cultural heritage into future developments in each eld and an extensive bibliography found almost everywhere Earth.

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