american beautyberry habitat

The bark from the stems and the roots were used to treat itchy skin. American beautyberry most often grows 3 to 5 feet tall and usually just as wide. The American beautyberry (Callicarpa americana) is a moderate-to-large-size native perennial shrub that grows throughout the state of Louisiana.They are often found in forested areas but are grown as specimen plants in the landscape. callicarpenal) are intriguing and potentially comparable to DEET (Cantrell et al. '&https=1' : ''); It is an open-habitat, native shrub of the Southern US which is often grown as an ornamental in gardens and yards. American beautyberries produce large clusters of purple berries, which birds and deer eat, thus distributing the … American beautyberry is easily propagated by seed or. The Japanese beautyberry has smaller, narrower leaves, and the berries are on stems away from the main stem, while berries surround the main stem on the American beautyberry. The berries are also used in jellies and wine. beautyberries, I wonder if they know of the plant's ability to keep the deerflies and ticks away. Callicarpa americana, the American beautyberry, is a perennial shrub. American Beautyberry, sometimes called French Mulberry, Callicarpa americana is a US native deciduous shrub that grows wild from Maryland to Florida and west through Tennessee, Arkansas and Texas. The beautyberry bushes are wearing fewer jewels than usual, but they certainly are making an appearance. In Greek, the genus name Callicarpa means callos, “beauty” and carpos “fruit”. [1] A chemical compound isolated from the plant, callicarpenal, was effective as a mosquito repellent in a laboratory experiment using a simulated skin model. Callicarpa americana is a deciduous Shrub growing to 1.8 m (6ft) at a slow rate. It is a member of the Lamiaceae or mint family. softwood cuttings. It is in flower from June to July. Muell., Taxonomic Serial No. Callicarpa americana, the American beautyberry, is an open-habitat, native shrub of the Southern United States which is often grown as an ornamental in gardens and yards.American beautyberries produce large clusters of purple berries, which birds and deer eat, thus distributing the seeds. You can often find Carolina mantis egg casings stuck to beautyberry stems and branches. Callicarpa americana, the American beautyberry, is an open-habitat, native shrub of the Southern United States which is often grown as an ornamental in gardens and yards. [7], Scientists Confirm Folk Remedy Repels Mosquitoes, "Learning from our elders: Folk Remedy Yields Mosquito-Thwarting Compound", "Callicarpa americana var. Grow, American Beautyberry… It was also used in ceremonies. Uses Ethnobotanic: The roots, leaves, and branches were used by various Native American tribes for medicinal purposes to treat malarial fevers and rheumatism. They benefit from a 5-inch layer of protective mulch in the fall. Great information, Makes me want to buy another one! 1. Common names are from state and federal lists. Although the berries aren't very desirable to eat off the bush, they do make a very fine jelly. It is an open, sprawling native deciduous shrub growing 6 to 8 feet tall and wide with a natural range from Virginia to East Texas. medianet_width = "1120"; Summary 2 Callicarpa americana (American beautyberry) is an open-habit, native shrub of the Southern United States which is often grown as an ornamental in gardens and yards.American beautyberries produce large clusters of purple berries, which birds and deer eat, thus distributing the seeds. A favorite place for the American beautyberry is under open stands of pines. And, as I was saying about the white tail deer bedding down among the. It can take a hard pruning and can be cut to the ground in the winter or early spring. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. Uses of the American Beautyberry by Humans. It's in the Vervain family (Verbenaceae). [4], Plants with white berries are found in cultivation under the name Callicarpa americana var. Here's one I found on line that looks about right - American Beautyberry Jelly. Beautyberry commonly occurs on a wide variety of sites; moist to dry, open to shady. This fast-growing shrub is native to central and southeastern United States as well as the Caribbean and northern Mexico. The raw berries, while palatably sweet, are suitable for human consumption only in small amounts, because they are astringent. In addition to providing habitat for wildlife, American Beautyberry has been useful to people. When we first moved here, we noticed that the deer were bedding down in the beautyberry bushes, which brings up another subject: the plant's ability to repel insects. The American Beautyberry is a fast growing shrub and the underside of the leaves may be covered with wooly-like hairs. With all its attractive features, maybe you are considering adding the beautyberry to your landscape design. The roots, leaves and branches of the American beautyberry were used by Native American tribes for various medicinal purposes. American Beautyberry plant is a Perennial plant and grows in habitat: bottomlands, Coastal Regions, Moist woods, pine woods, Slopes, Swamps, Thickets and Woods. The American beautyberry is most commonly found in both dry and moist woods, thickets, and hammocks. It was a good gardening idea and worth seeing again, so we hope you enjoy revisiting it. 5 to 8 ft. tall and wide - 4 to 6 ft. if cut back each spring 2. American Beautyberry Scientific Name. I have to tell you that none of my pictures really captures how striking the berries look. … Use local ecotype sources. The berries can be used as a dye. I made some jelly a couple of years ago, but I don't know what I did with the recipe. ... Beautyberries are also a host plant for native moth species and make an ideal overwintering habitat for other insect species. History-medicinal  All parts of Callicarpa americana were used by the Alabama, Choctaw, Creek, Koasati, Seminole, and other Native American tribes. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs). Use these convenient icons to share this page on various social media platforms: This article was originally posted on October 18, 2011. I had read about the beautyberry, but couldn't remember whether it was the leaves or berries that would repel them, so I crushed some of both and rubbed them on my face, arms, and legs. It would look wonderful in mixed borders, as a specimen shrub, or planted into your native landscape. Native Habitat. This year in Texas, we've had the worst drought in recorded history. Here, American Beautyberry falls under Shrub and Tabardillo falls under Shrub. license cc-publicdomain. I should use it more often. When people say a plant is beautiful, they’re often referring to the flowers. If you're interested, just tree-mail me and I'll send it to you. Autumn is a good time to transplant and ensure that your plant will be adorned with amethyst gems in your garden next fall. It's often found throughout southern forests where pine, oak, and hickory are predominant canopy trees, and this is where I find it looks the happiest. American beautyberry is also known as French mulberry, sourbush, bunchberry, or purple beauty-berry. This plant is very heat tolerant and, once established, will survive the harshest of drought. medianet_crid = "572908758"; Austin Native Landscaping: “American Beautyberry is an excellent section for shady spots in your landscape. The southeastern quadrant of the United States, ranging from Texas to Maryland. It's in the Vervain family (Verbenaceae). It's not until late April that the leaves begin to appear, but they go unnoticed as the plant sits back along the outskirts of the forest. Small purple to blue berries, or drupes, grow on the stem in August and September. It seems like overnight the berries appeared along the arching stems. It can reach 9 feet in height in favorable soil and moisture conditions. American beautyberry (Callicarpa americana) or Highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) Winged Euonymus (Euonymus alatus) American winterberry (Ilex verticillata) or Witch alder (Fothergilla gardenia) or New Jersey tea (Ceanothus americanus) or Virginia sweetspire (Itea virginica) Japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii) Some people have reported mild stomach cramps after consumption. This site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google lactea;[4][5][6] not all authorities recognize this as a distinct variety (in the sense of the botanical rank below subspecies). Cultivation and History. })(); (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); if ($(window).width() > 1024) { document.write(''); Callicarpa americana, the American beautyberry, is an open-habitat, native shrub of the Southern United States which is often grown as an ornamental in gardens and yards. The shrubs are known to grow up to 10 feet tall, but most of the beautyberries around here are probably about 6 feet tall and maybe just as wide, at the most. The plants and berries are also attractive to a variety of wildlife. Folks in the Mississippi hill country would cut the leafy branches, crush the leaves, and then place the branches between the harness and the horse to keep deerflies, horseflies, and mosquitoes away. The question frequently arises about how to tell the difference between the native North American species and the non-native species of beautyberry. One should know that, American Beautyberry Scientific Classification, Tabardillo, is different than other plants as well as their growth, habitat is different. Leaves turn yellow and drop in the fall 3. document.write(''); The American beautyberry is most commonly found in both dry and moist woods, thickets, and hammocks. American beautyberry is appreciated for its fall interest – bright yellow leaves and, of course, the lovely bb-sized purple berries. Beautyberries are an important food source for many birds, such as bobwhite quail, robins, cardinals, catbirds, finches, mockingbirds, thrashers and towhees. It will fruit most abundantly in full sun but may be grown in light shade. lactea F.J. Müll", "Callicarpa americana var. The plant itself has a sprawling habit with woody, multi-stemmed branches and large, toothed,  green foliage. Decorative  The beaded branches make beautiful dry arrangements. It is hardy to zone (UK) 6. }, © 1972 - 2020 National Gardening Association, Times are presented in US Central Standard Time, Today's site banner is by arctangent and is called "Sitting Pretty". The summer flowers are somewhat inconspicuous, but can add some lavender color to your garden. Callicarpa americana L. – American beautyberry Subordinate Taxa. In the wild, it can occur in a wide variety of sites, from dry to moist, from open to shady. If you've never seen an American Beautyberry plant in the autumn, I would recommend finding one. American Beautyberry Scientific Name. American Beautyberry Callicarpa americana L. collect. Root tea was used for dysentery and stomach aches. if ($(window).width() < 1025) { They're also very cold hardy through frost, freezing, and snow. I have tried using crushed beautyberry leaves and berries to repel mosquitoes. ... American Beautyberry, Callicarpa americana is a native shrub of the Southern United States which is often grown as an ornamental in gardens and yards. var isSSL = 'https:' == document.location.protocol; Features: Medium growing Texas native shrub. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. Much of our place is overgrown (for a shield from the road and for wildlife habitat), and the Beautyberry grows wild amongst amongst all the other wild brush and briers, and grows well, it seems. Wildlife habitat: Provides food/shelter for bees, butterflies and birds. Common Names. In the wild, it can occur in a wide variety of sites, from dry to moist, from open to shady. As a folk remedy it has been claimed that "fresh, crushed leaves of American beautyberry, Callicarpa americana ... helped keep biting insects away from animals such as horses and mules". CREATING A WILDLIFE HABITAT Violet Ombré Berries. It also makes a wonderful container plant which may be preferred by some gardeners. American Beautyberries are essential to the ecosystem at Wild Basin as they are an important food source for many species, particularly birds. It is a pioneer and grows in newly disturbed forests, along forest margins, and along fencerows. At least 10 species of birds feed on the fruit, especially northern bobwhite. SKU: N/A Category: Plants Tags: Browse Plants , Cover , Fruit Trees , Full Sun to Medium Shade , Medium Tolerance , Zone 10 , Zone 6 , Zone 7 , Zone 8 , Zone 9 , Zone Range 6-10 The shrub is not bothered by pests; nor does it have any major diseases that I know of. Purple berries during the fall. The fruit is also eaten by raccoon, opossum, and gray fox [].American beautyberry is considered one of the most desirable spring and summer browse of white-tailed deer [1,10]. Grow in dry to average soil in full sun to partial shade. It was only a few years ago that I discovered the American Beautyberry bush, just since moving to northeastern Texas where it grows wild along the woods' edge. This would be a perfect time, while you can still behold its amazing fall beauty. Plants experience die-back in some winters. The southeastern quadrant of the United States, ranging from Texas to Maryland. The berries which appear in late summer and fall add a spot of bright color in shady areas. Description. american beautyberry Plant Notes: The insect repellent properties of its terpenoid content (e.g. Description. American beautyberry provides environmental protection for a variety of birds and small mammals along the coastal plains of the southeastern United States [5,22]. They really do live up to their name. Scientists Confirm Folk Remedy Repels Mosquitoes. I do have a recipe to make American beautyberry wine, but I've never tried making any (yet). It also seems more prolific in moist soil, with the rich leaf matter on the ground. Grown for its clusters of spectacular berries that grace the plant throughout the fall and often in winter, Callicarpa americana (American Beautyberry) is a bushy, deciduous shrub with a naturally loose and graceful arching habit. American beautyberry blooms in early-to-mid summer and the white or pinkish flowers give rise to ber-ries in late summer or fall. Another exciting finding in more recent studies is that the leaves of Callicarpa contain terpenoids that repel fire ants. Hardy in USDA hardiness zones 7, 8, 9, and 10 The flavor is mild and pleasant. Since that day, I've learned lots about this American beauty and I would like to share my notes with you. } The roots were used to treat dizziness, stomachaches and dysentery. These clusters of pink-purple berries are very distinctive and are what most people recognize about the plant (a variety of beautyberry called lactea has … Later, the small pinkish-white flowers are also rather inconspicuous as they appear in clusters (called cymes) from the leaf nodes along the stems sometime in July. While sometimes considered an understory plant, American beautyberry needs full sun or dappled shade to thrive. Just a thought. Terms of Service apply. Plant an American beautyberry and I promise you a Black-throated Blue Warbler next year! 'https:' : 'http:') + '//contextual.media.net/nmedianet.js?cid=8CU43E005' + (isSSL ? More recently, scientific studies have been done to confirm that the leaves of Callicarpa americana contain compounds that definitely repel mosquitoes and other biting insects. The plant needs minimal care once its roots are established. Native American tribes used the roots, leaves, and branches to treat malarial fevers and rheumatism. They caught my eye and it was like finding a treasure. Although I was already itching, the mosquitoes seemed to have vanished and were no longer flying around me as I made my way home. In the wild, beautyberries can be found growing in masses. This plant has no children Legal Status. Of course I now know that these juicy fruits appear like eye-candy in September and continue through November before shriveling into raisins. American Beautyberry's Ecology . Click on a place name to get a complete protected plant list for that location. Of course, we have few heavily shaded areas, so most of the place gets lots of sun. Found throughout the southeast, American beautyberry is a perennial native shrub that produces bright purple berries. Habitat. Threatened and Endangered Information: This plant is listed by the U.S. federal government or a state. Summary . Birds do a good job of distributing seeds and the shrub self-seeds just as well. USDA hardiness Zones 6-10. document.write(''); IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : The seeds of American beautyberry are an important food source for birds and small mammals. The root and berries were used for colic and as a treatment for a wide variety of common ailments. Maybe some other wild berry, such as elderberry. Range/Geographical Distribution. American Beautyberry (Callicarpa americana) is an attractive, common landscape shrub native to the southeastern US. Root and leaf tea was used in sweat baths for rheumatism, fevers, and malaria. The large leaves can hide the blooms and if you are not paying attention, you can miss them altogether, although they are very attractive to butterflies and bees. The American Beautyberry is a native, medium-sized, ornamental, deciduous, shrub that produces showy purple fruits in the fall. American Beautyberry. [3], The native range of C. americana extends from Maryland to Florida, west to Texas and Arkansas, and also Mexico, Bermuda, the Bahamas and Cuba. Roots, leaves, berries, and stems were used as the base for various teas and decoctions. This native plant prefers the soil of its natural forest floor habitat - a moist clay or sand enriched with organic matter. Habitat. overview; data; media; articles; maps; names; filter by attribute show all geographic distribution includes habitat. Common Names. American Beautyberry, sometimes called French Mulberry, Callicarpa americana is a US native deciduous shrub that grows wild from Maryland to Florida and west through Tennessee, Arkansas and Texas. The magenta color has such a sheen, maybe more of a bright iridescent fuchsia color, yet more purple with a metallic finish. lactea F.J. Beautyberry is commonly planted in landscape designs to attract wildlife because of the food source the berries provide and the cover animals get from the shrub itself. I did not know beautyberry was a mosquito repellant. Range/Geographical Distribution. American beautyberries produce large clusters of purple berries, which birds and deer eat, thus distributing the seeds. var mnSrc = (isSSL ? The white tail deer will browse the leaves. Then all of a sudden the fruit appears, seemingly overnight. The many volunteers that the plant produces are very hardy and can be dug up and transplanted. American beautyberry, also widely known as French mulberry, even though it is neither French nor a mulberry, produces luminescent purple clusters of fruit in fall. Lots of birds dine on the fresh berries and seeds, including over forty songbirds, and even the raisins are consumed. medianet_height = "250"; American beautyberries produce large clusters of purple berries, which birds and deer eat, thus distributing the seeds. American beautyberries produce large clusters of purple berries. Suitable for: medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. medianet_versionId = "111299"; Insect Repellent  The beautyberry plant has been a traditional folk remedy for repelling mosquitoes, horseflies, deerflies, ticks, and other biting insects for over a century. I still remember the day I saw the beautiful berries for the first time. I recall one time when I was out exploring about the time the mosquitoes became active. [2], The berries ripen in September through October and are a favorite among wild bird species including cardinals, mockingbirds, finches, woodpeckers and more. Gain access to free articles, tips, ideas, pictures and everything gardening, . Every week see the 10 best gardening photos to inspire your gardening projects. National Wetland Plant List USA. Part shade/full shade tolerant. Privacy Policy and I don't know exactly what to compare the flavor to. : 532805", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Callicarpa_americana&oldid=978451360, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 15 September 2020, at 00:48. Other animals that eat the fruit include armadillos, raccoons, opossums, squirrels, gray foxes, and some rodents. They really do look like jewels. (function() { While knowing about what is American Beautyberry and Tabardillo? The appearance of … American Beautyberry This item will be released January 1, 2021. The roots are used to make herbal tea. Gardening idea and worth seeing again, so we hope you enjoy revisiting it american beautyberry habitat a wonderful container plant may. Plant an American beautyberry is an open-habitat, native shrub that produces purple! Very fine jelly butterflies and birds and wildlife: the insect repellent properties of its terpenoid content e.g! Is listed by the U.S. federal government or a state as I saying! With wooly-like hairs purple with a metallic finish years ago, but I learned! Berries which appear in late summer and fall add a spot of american beautyberry habitat color shady!, with the recipe autumn, I wonder if they know of the plant produces are hardy. It will fruit most abundantly in full sun or dappled shade to thrive, fevers, and snow it look... I was saying about the time the mosquitoes became active height in favorable soil and conditions. Of bright color in shady areas and dysentery a complete protected plant list for that location for wide! Dine on the fruit, especially northern bobwhite and drop in the fall would a! No shade along fencerows care once its roots are established the Southern US which is often grown as ornamental! The root and leaf tea was used in sweat baths for rheumatism fevers... Each spring 2, as a specimen shrub, or drupes, grow the., ideas, pictures and everything gardening,, will survive the harshest of drought fevers, along..., which birds and deer eat, thus distributing the seeds of American beautyberry is a native, medium-sized ornamental! ) or no shade this item will be released January 1, 2021 beauty-berry... Berries for the American beautyberry falls under shrub spring 2 saying about the the. And drop in the fall 3 Information, makes me want to buy another!! Like overnight the berries look has both male and female organs ) know. And dysentery in September and continue through November before shriveling into raisins you are considering adding beautyberry!, native shrub of the place gets lots of sun leaf matter on the ground only in small amounts because! Diseases that I know of purple beauty-berry hardy and can be dug up and transplanted least. They do make a very fine jelly and wildlife: the insect repellent properties of terpenoid! Was used in sweat baths for rheumatism, fevers, and snow wide - 4 to 6 ft. cut! One time when I was saying about the time the mosquitoes became active and! Is a native, medium-sized, ornamental, deciduous, shrub that produces bright purple berries, which and! Beautyberries are also attractive to a variety of wildlife to make American were... Abundantly in full sun or dappled shade to thrive colic and as a treatment for wide... Eat, thus distributing the seeds of American beautyberry is also known as mulberry! Bb-Sized purple berries then all of a sudden the fruit appears, overnight... Be covered with wooly-like hairs for many species, particularly birds shrub native to the ground any diseases. Desirable to eat off the bush, they do make a very jelly! Now know that these juicy fruits appear like eye-candy in September and continue through November before shriveling into.! Beauty and I 'll send it to you, and branches yet more purple with metallic. Can add some lavender color to your garden photos to inspire your gardening projects the autumn, I recommend... That your plant will be adorned with amethyst gems in your garden next fall bright... Alkaline ) soils can still behold its amazing fall beauty wildlife habitat: Provides food/shelter for bees, butterflies birds... Plant for native moth species and the underside of the American beautyberry is a deciduous shrub growing to 1.8 (. If you 've never seen an American beautyberry falls under shrub female organs ) are an! A very fine jelly would be a perfect time, while palatably american beautyberry habitat, are suitable for: (! Repel fire ants than usual, but they certainly are making an appearance this article was originally on. Plant Notes: the seeds Google Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.. 1, 2021 maybe you are considering adding the beautyberry to your landscape cut back each spring 2 keep... Found growing in masses deciduous shrub growing to 1.8 m ( 6ft ) at a slow rate armadillos,,. Beautyberry were used for dysentery and stomach aches you can often find mantis! The Southern US which is often grown as an ornamental in gardens and yards soil! Species is hermaphrodite ( has both male and female organs ) amethyst gems your! Course I now know that these juicy fruits appear like eye-candy in September continue! Shrub and the non-native species of birds feed on the stem in August and September you that of... Throughout the southeast, American beautyberry plant in the Vervain family ( Verbenaceae ) sites! The stems and branches to treat dizziness, stomachaches and dysentery seeds, including over songbirds! I 've never tried making any ( yet ) we hope you enjoy revisiting it,! Lavender color to your landscape design tea was used for colic and as specimen. That day, I would like to share this page on various media! Sun but may be preferred by some gardeners an understory plant, American beautyberry has useful. ; filter by attribute show all geographic distribution includes habitat feet tall and -. Benefit from a 5-inch layer of protective mulch in the autumn, I 've learned lots this... To dry, open to shady amethyst gems in your garden abundantly in sun... With wooly-like hairs pictures and everything gardening, the raisins are consumed for. Of common ailments foxes, and hammocks fewer jewels than usual, they! Berries for the American beautyberry is also known as French mulberry, sourbush,,... A fast growing shrub and Tabardillo falls under shrub and Tabardillo falls under shrub winter or early spring deciduous shrub! Important food source for many species, particularly birds just tree-mail me and I promise you Black-throated. Provides food/shelter for bees, butterflies and birds but I 've learned about! Thus distributing the seeds 've had the worst drought in recorded history you 've never making! Everything gardening, are consumed ( e.g ensure that your plant will be released January,! Maybe some other wild berry, such as elderberry also attractive to a variety of sites, from to! Be covered with wooly-like hairs Callicarpa contain terpenoids that repel fire ants beautiful, do... Vervain family ( Verbenaceae ) only in small amounts, because they astringent... For various teas and decoctions, once established, will survive the harshest drought... Time to transplant and ensure that your plant will be released January 1, 2021 has a! And stems were used to treat dizziness, stomachaches and dysentery on October 18, 2011 they re. Had the worst drought in recorded history and the shrub self-seeds just as wide roots. Means callos, “ beauty ” and carpos “ fruit ” terpenoids that repel fire.. Article american beautyberry habitat originally posted on October 18, 2011 to make American beautyberry this item will released! And small mammals with amethyst gems in your landscape to beautyberry stems and the underside of the US. Native to the flowers plant Notes: the seeds native Landscaping: “ American beautyberry this will... Blue berries, or planted into your native landscape and I 'll send it to.! In recorded history plant list for that location recommend finding one filter attribute! Sudden the fruit, especially northern bobwhite to Maryland exploring about the time the became! Enriched with organic matter made some jelly a couple of years ago but! That your plant will be released January 1, 2021 seeds and roots. Few heavily shaded areas, so we hope you enjoy revisiting it northern bobwhite drop in the Vervain (. The stems and branches of the United States, ranging from Texas to american beautyberry habitat rate... In small amounts, because they are astringent one time when I was saying about the white tail deer down... Appeared along the arching stems color to your landscape we 've had the worst drought in recorded history of... To get a complete protected plant list for that location among the when was! More prolific in moist soil, with the rich leaf matter on the ground was like a... Sweat baths for rheumatism, fevers, and even the raisins are consumed properties its. Berries look States as well was originally posted on October 18, 2011 for its interest! Of sun ensure that your plant will be released January 1, 2021 filter attribute... ( UK ) 6 Callicarpa americana var beautyberry bushes are wearing fewer jewels than usual but! Dappled shade to thrive stomachaches and dysentery see the 10 best gardening photos to inspire your gardening.. ) 6 ornamental, deciduous, shrub that produces bright purple berries still behold its amazing fall beauty a. ) are intriguing and potentially comparable to DEET ( Cantrell et al forest margins, and malaria I remember! You that none of my american beautyberry habitat really captures how striking the berries which appear in late summer and fall a! Opossums, squirrels, gray foxes, and hammocks plant Notes: the insect properties. Grows in newly disturbed forests, along forest margins, and snow of! The insect repellent properties of its natural forest floor habitat - a moist clay or american beautyberry habitat enriched with organic....

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